Operations in Currency Supply Chains – A Review

June 2017 | Geismar, Neil

Even though more and more transactions and payments are conducted electronically, physical currency (banknotes
and coins) still plays an essential role in commerce and trade, and it is expected to maintain its dominance in the
near future. Over the past decade, several studies have analyzed various currency supply chains across the world. This
study provides an overview of this research. The structure of a general banknote supply chain is given before the discussion
of the problems from three different perspectives: (i) the supply side, that is, the parties who are in charge of supplying
currency in the supply chain; (ii) the demand side, that is, the parties who request the currency; and (iii) the secure
third-party logistics providers. We also provide a framework for analyzing the US coin supply chain and descriptions of
the coin supply chains in other countries. Future research directions are proposed based on the research work carried out
so far and for the field in general.



  • Chelliah Sriskandarajah
  • Yunxia Zhu


Production and Operations Management